Introducing the Manager and Leader Framework

Why this framework? 

This framework is presented as part of a leader development strategy, linked to the Valuing People framework. 

In The Salvation Army we lead and manage in many ways. Perhaps you manage or lead a team? Maybe you have very few or no direct reports, but are responsible for delivering complex projects or programmes or are a thought leader in your field? Whatever your role, this manager and leader framework is offered, which describes The Salvation Army way of leading we want to aspire to and supports the broadening and deepening of our servant leadership. 

The framework aims to support engagement of individuals and teams in their own development, along with access to appropriate resources. 

Where has this come from?   

The framework has been developed in response to feedback. Recommendations from FFM Review included that ‘all personnel development processes be reviewed to ensure that we are adequately measuring core competencies, ensuring honest feedback, providing meaningful coaching and striving for a culture where every team member reaches their full potential’. Senior leadership gave a brief for ‘leader development to underpin every aspect of Salvation Army mission’ ‘through vocational and leadership development, succession planning, performance management and mutual accountability’. This is to support the flourishing and fruitfulness of people and mission.  

How does it fit in with The Salvation Army identity and priorities? 

Our identity work: vision, mission, values including the valuing people framework and fiscal stewardship principles, underpin the framework and are woven throughout. 

How does our identity inform how we lead? 

We need to continually be drawn back to understand how we live and work together and demonstrate love in action through servant leadership.   

It would be obvious for a church to use servant leadership, as Jesus modelled servant leadership through his whole ministry. Servant leadership is a model also used in the business world, commonplace in many organisations and is something we are challenged to fulfil. 

Robert K Greenleaf, in his book ‘Servant Leadership: Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power and Greatness’ suggests a great leader is seen as a servant first, expanding this as an essential principle in secular leadership, and not solely the prerogative of spiritual leadership. 

The servant leader recognises that all people have gifts and talents to be developed and used, becoming enabler, equipper and mobiliser of the ministry of others for service.   

Servant leaders discover power by giving it up, refuse to use their positions to control people or to use them as steppingstones, enhancing their power by sharing it with others.  Leaders must take their authority seriously, exercise it responsibly and not be intoxicated by it, understanding that the power entrusted to them is the power to empower others.  The Army will continue to nurture servanthood. 


How does the framework help us consider our whole selves in life and work? 

‘Knowing, being, doing’ is a framework to support Salvation Army leaders by encouraging us to engage in reflecting holistically on our life.  You might have heard this referred to as ‘heart, head, hands’, or as ‘knowledge, skills, behaviour/attitude’, in other contexts. 

Knowing – relates to academic learning, includes our experiences, knowledge and understanding of the world in which we live, our understanding of people, and what we believe and why we believe it.  

Being – focuses on values, behaviours and attitudes, as well as self-reflection on our character and who we have the potential to become.  

Doing results in our ‘way of being in the world’. What should we do? How should we act? What choices do we make? How do we practically apply expertise?  

All three areas are important for mature leadership and are important for The Salvation Army. In understanding and reflecting on the interrelationship between them we can ensure our life is holistic, grounded, and dynamic. Each element influences the other two and our lives are diminished when they are not blended. We need to habitually make deliberate connections between who we are, what we know, how we live and what we do. We believe who we are is the root of our action, but reflection on action can challenge and shape who we are and how we act.   


How is reflective practice key in helping us consider our knowing, being and doing? 

Reflective practice is the habit of intentionally reflecting on the way one lives and works, reviewing what has been done and exploring possibilities for improvement in one’s practice. 

The development framework is built on the concept of reflective practice with an aim to provide a supportive environment and regular opportunities to pause, look back, reflect on practice and experience to notice, learn, grow and deepen our understanding and practice, to equip us as we look ahead.  This includes our personal reflection and listening to and reflecting on feedback from others, keeping us accountable, open to other perspectives and enabling us to be adaptable leaders. This all informs our planning for learning and decision making and supports us to better prepare for the future as leaders. 


How does the framework fit with the Valuing Individual Performance process?      

The framework is laid out in an easy to reference way.  It offers definitions of standards of leadership to clarify expectations, help us to see where we are on our leadership journey, offering objective ways to measure our leadership, helping us to identify where and how we can be more effective. This will help us work towards healthy and flourishing environments and flourishing mission. 

The framework can inform, support and supplement all elements of the VIP process, including: 

  • Probationary reviews 
  • 1-2-1 appraisals 
  • Annual reviews 
  • Talent management and succession planning 


What is the link between the VIP and day to day leadership?  

VIP processes support the requirement for everyone to be receiving regular performance reviews and feedback, identification of learning and development needs, resource for mission and wellbeing, encouragement to engage with mentoring or coaching as appropriate, in a disciplined, timely and meaningful way that is mutually accountable. 

Support, Oversight and Release (SOaR) indicates how Salvation Army people need to be appropriately supported and accountable for our work and empowered and released to carry it out. Where people are flourishing, local mission will be flourishing.